Thanks in advance for any and all insight/input. NOTE: This is the basic scheme of the process: it will save you a lot of steps and at the end you have much less spent solution to treat. The internet is largely anonymous & unvetted; some names may be fictitious and some recommendations might be harmful. As soon as the lump of metal hits the water, it is instantly enveloped in a cloud of hydrogen gas and steam that should cut the sodium off from the water and stop the reaction – but it doesn’t. However after reading about this chemical it looks like a certain amount of SO2 is released. I'm currently working on a mining project for a gold mine that involves the usage of Sodium Metabisulfite. While I'm not retired, it probably has also been 20 years since I designed wastewater treatment systems, so my numbers could be off as well, but I don't think so :-). Thanks, Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. OnDuty – Säkerhetssupport med fysisk resurs, Sjukvård – Första hjälpen och akutsjukvård. Similar to the hydration of sulfuric acid, dissolution of solid sodium hydroxide in water is a highly exothermic reaction where a large amount of heat is liberated, posing a threat to safety through the possibility of splashing. Chemistry teachers and instructors are usually reluctant to perform experiments that include a hazard. Thanks in advance. Please spend a couple of paragraphs so we understand what your question is. Can this affect the reactivity of the powder? Altitude: 4000 m.a.l.s Q. Sodium borohydride and sodium methoxide are insoluble in mineral oil and are easily separated from the The reaction generates heat slowly, and lithium's melting point is too high for it to melt (this is not the case for sodium). Phenol reacts with aqueous NaOH to produce sodium phenoxide and water On a side note: the river water will be pre-filtered for larger materials (algae, etc. - The oxidation process when SMBS get in contact with air, how fast is it? Chemical lecture experiments . Sodium A white trail of sodium hydroxide is seen in the water under the sodium, but this soon dissolves to give a colourless solution of sodium hydroxide. Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Thanks for useful chemical comments on the above topic. Na2S2O5 + 2HCl => 2NaCl + H2O + 2SO2. And you can expect rampant scaling of all slurry handling equipment downstream. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. 2Na + 2H2O --> 2NaOH + H2 Hydrogeologist - Land O Lakes, Florida - US, ©1995-2021 finishing.com, Inc., Pine Beach, NJ, How Google uses data when you visit this site. No need to register, buy now! Reacts with water, acids, mono and dioxide of carbon. The environmental conditions are: Jag föredrar att bli kontaktad While it is not instantaneous and may take a minute or two at pH 4.5 instead of 2.5, my experience is that it will reduce the chromium without a lot of fuming and wastage to fumes. As a result, a number of fascinating experiments remain unknown to the public. What to Expect. Does anyone know if the SMBS or SBS would be a better option? In water and wastewater treatment, it is this SO2 that provides the reducing power. In the plating industry we tend to use smaller amounts (often purchased in 50 pound bags rather than 1200 kg) and higher dilution ratios. The reaction of sodium metal with water/alcohols is: 1) 2 N a (s) + 2 R O H (l) ⟶ 2 N a O R ↓ + H X 2 ↑ where R=H for water, and is the hydrocarbon chain for alcohols. When Sodium MBS get in contact with air becomes oxidize (loss part of its SO2 available) Q. I'm looking at the possibility of treating surface water (from a river) with either Sodium bisulfite (SBS) or Sodium Metabisulfite (SMBS) for the purpose of removing dissolved oxygen. We get it in 1200 kg FIBC bags with an inner liner and still have problems with gas production in hot humid days via hygroscopy. Sodium Bisulfite solution at 30% I am in the water treatment chemical industry and use sulfite containing solutions. This will be contained in a closed tank I know SMBS + water produces SBS, and is typically less expensive. Sodium behaves as a reducing agent in this reaction. I would have thought that as you indicated if you made the solution up and raised the pH high enough with caustic I believe there would be no smell, probably pH 5-6. - Sodium MBS + demineralized water release SO2? Step 7 is the quenching of Step 6 reaction products with water. Look at this figure for reference: A small piece of sodium metal will be placed in a bowl of water. (H 2). I have more questions but these ones are the most important. The water consentration and reaction temperature influenced the FFA content, reaction conversion, and the reaction rate constant. elements_selector: "iframe" The reaction is: 2 Na + 2 H 2 O → 2 Na + + 2 OH - + H 2 (g) Sodium metal reacts rapidly with water to form a colourless solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and evolve hydrogen gas (H2). I normally would think that your chemical supplier should have a lot of your question answered. Thanks Geoffrey. A. Hi Sakina. new LazyLoad({ What I understood so far the main issue would be release of SO2, but controlling pH and temperature would help out to control the release, although I was wondering how to keep a Food Grade when blending the water with SMBS. Genom att klicka på "Acceptera" godkänner du att ALLA cookies används. My own practical experience, without a lot of chemistry knowledge, is that SMBS works to reduce chromium from hexavalent to trivalent up to a pH of nearly 5.0. I am also unfamiliar with adding alkali to the mix to try to limit SO2 generation during the holding period. Tel Impressive flow sheet, if your interest is using the SO2 to precipitate gold from aqua regia, Why not use SO2 gas? - How hygroscopic is this powder? A. Hi Sakina, I'm not normally on this website but stumbled across you question and may be able to help. - What would be the best way to evacuate the produced gas outside of the tank? Find the perfect sodium water reaction stock photo. Via: e-postVia: telefon It's hard to use this product and not produce SO2. It has got vigorous reaction with water forming sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 2014 but continuing through 2019. } window.cookieconsent.initialise({ But the main release of SO2 comes during the acidification. Meddelande I don't know why you are using SMBS but it won't perform a reduction process unless the pH is low enough to release the SO2 gas. - Is there another way to extract this gas from the tank? 2 NaHO2 (solution) → (time) 2 NaOH + O2↑ (normal temp.). Sodium Metabisulfite contains 65% of SO2 available. ©1995-2021 finishing.com, Inc., Pine Beach, NJ   -   About finishing.com   -  Privacy Policy new LazyLoad(); - If there a way to eliminate the O2 inside of the tank? 3 for instant reduction to Cr3. The reaction generates heat too slowly and lithium's melting point is too high for it to melt (see sodium below). It might work! Research this product thoroughly before implementation. This reaction occurs so fast and form a … The reaction product is a fully transformed solid sodium borohydroxide, as shown below. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Sodium Metabisulfite will be mixed with water to create a first solution at 30% in a make up tank (preparation tank + mixer/stirrer) and after that will be deposited in a storage tank of 12 hours autonomy (it's a batch system), this solution will be dosing to the process not before pass through a post-dilution system (static mixer + water) that will make final solution has 10% of concentration. This reaction is highly exothermic evolving a lot of heat which is sufficient enough to melt sodium due to its low melting point. "button": { It does evolve fumes, but if the mixing tank is simply equipped with a loose cover, and if it is applied in treating wastes that are closer to pH 5.0 than 2.0, the smell & fuming are not major issues. Humidity is around 70-90% A. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. sodium borohydride if the predecessor steps are improved. Sodium Hydride and Water Reaction | NaH + H 2 O Sodium hydride (NaH) violently reacts with water (H 2 O) and produce sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas. As products, sodium phenoxide (salt) and water are given. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Q. Hola Alejandro and Everyone, If sodium reacts with an excess of water at standard conditions, dissolved sodium hydroxide and hydrogen are formed. E-post If a phenolphthalein indicator has been added to the water, the sodium will leave a pink trail behind it as the metal sputters and reacts. Hope this helps. Final reaction product - complete hydrolysis with no water left The amount of added water can be as little as 2:1 by weight (water to NaBH 4 ), giving in practice the weight percentage of generated H 2 in excess of 6 wt.% (calculated in relation to both water and NaBH 4 ). - If Sodium Bisulfite solution get in contact with O2 becomes oxidize (to sodium sulfate), but how fast is this oxidation? "text": "#237afc" Probably the majority of people in the chrome plating industry (and those platers still using hexavalent chromates) use SMBS to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent. - I also read that at low temperatures (just like this case), sodium metabisulfite forms hydrates with 6 and 7 moles of water. But when added as powder 40% of reaction produces an Impurity. Sodium, chemical element of the alkali metal group in the periodic table. In my application I'm interested in dissolving SMBS for production of sodium bisulfite for water treatment. The reaction of Sodium MBS and water is rule by the following: The reaction is exothermic. If you need a product/service, please check these Directories: Jobshops Capital Equip. I'd like to know how did this go and what are your conclusions? The resulting solution is usually colorless and odorless. I'm just curious what the byproduct(s) might be, and also what the basic mixing ratio is (which I'll need to scale up or down based on the water quantity being treated). The best condition of VCO hydrolysis using 1% of … [32] Dilute solutions (50 ppm to 1.5%) are found in disinfecting sprays and wipes used on hard surfaces. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Disclaimer: It's not possible to fully diagnose a finishing problem or the hazards of an operation via these pages. In the reduction of Cr6 the pH has to be lowered to approx. Sodium moves in water as the dihydrogen gas formed below the waterline pushes sodium. A. Hi Bruno. $$\ce{2 Na + 2 H2O-> 2 Na+_{(aq)} + 2 OH-_{(aq)} + H2}$$ Sodium oxide can be synthesized by reaction of sodium hydroxide with sodium: Good luck. A discussion started in In 1807 Sir Humphry Davy became the first to prepare sodium in its elemental form, applying electrolysis to fused sodium hydroxide (NaOH). During this reaction the explosive hydrogen gas is also formed. A. window.addEventListener("load", function(){ It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). Sodium hypochlorite can also be used for point-of-use disinfection of drinking water, taking 0.2-2 mg of sodium hypochlorite per liter of water. Chlorine , bromine and iodine react with sodium hydroxide to form a mixture of salts and water The reactions become less vigorous down the group as the reactivity of the halogens decreases The release of SO2 is unwanted, and I would like to know if the release of SO2 can be avoided if dissolving in a neutral or high pH environment. I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor (http://www.youtube.com/editor) The mix and holding tank have to be sealed and vented or you will gas out the tank room. Sodium metal reacts rapidly with water to form a colourless solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and evolve hydrogen gas (H2). Sodium is a metal but being very light, floats on water. Properties and production Because sodium is extremely reactive, it never occurs in the free state in Earth’s crust. I realize that this is not quite responsive to the question about using it for gold refining, but I mention it on this metal finishing site because every approach has advantages & disadvantages and I would not want readers to think it is excessively dangerous or non-useful for reduction of hexavalent chromium. A. Not sure if I should comment because this is all from memory after over 20+ years of retirement. Consult'g, Train'g, Software Environmental Compliance. "background": "#fff", Any information is welcome. Please advise how we can avoid this formation of Impurity. This is for a water re-use project, where the D.O. This reaction evolves heat, which can further accelerate the reaction or cause Temperature range: 1 °C - 15 °C A. Hi Ted & Install'n Chemicals & Consumables Namn The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. Vi använder cookies på vår webbplats som kommer ihåg dina preferenser för att ge dig en så relevant upplevelse som möjligt. - How can I control the releasing of SO2? Sodium amide reacts violently with water to produce ammonia and sodium hydroxide . Thanks! - How much amount of this gas is released? Having said that, in solution where the pH exceeds 8.5, the bisulfite forms sulfite, which has a maximum solubility of roughly 10%, meaning everything over that will precipitate and end up as white crystals in the bottom of the container. The amount of SO2 released depends on temperature, ph, and the % concentration. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. ), but won't undergo any other chemical treatment besides what I've already discussed for the D.O. Na2S2O5 + H2O --> 2NaHSO3 "popup": { }, Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Elementary sodium reacts strongly with water, according to the following reaction mechanism: 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O → 2NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g) A colourless solution is formed, consisting of strongly alkalic sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and hydrogen gas. A. I've used SMBS for 5 years now (Zn depression in Cu circuit). Lyazzat. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Q. I am using SMBS as antioxidant for Manufacturing of API. All information presented is for general reference and does not represent a professional opinion nor the policy of an author's employer. })}); Not a lecture hall but a roundtable with a seat for you! - This can also release SO2? Reiterating my personal experience with the use of SMBS for reducing hexavalent chromium to trivalent, I found that a long retention time allowed reduction with a reasonably high pH (about 4 - 5 if I recall correctly), and very little evolution of SO2 gas into the air; whereas a lower pH allowed a much quicker reaction but with far more release of SO2. The reaction is If sodium is But I don't understand what kind of help you are looking for :-(. Due to its hygroscopic properties this powder absorb the moisture contains in the air quickly. In my opinion, reduce the SMBS to 38% or less and make sure the pH does not exceed 8.5. Iodine dissolves slowly to form a mixture of sodium iodide , sodium iodate (I) and water Due to their acidic property halogens are more soluble in sodium hydroxide than in water. As soon as dropped in water, metallic sodium actually floats, runs and dances on surface of water making hissing sound; it catches fire also. Isn't it true that the SO2 we smell is the SO2 we wasted, so we should keep the pH as high as possible as long as it still works? - By adding chlorine gas (Cl 2) to caustic soda (NaOH). The formula, shown in Wikipedia and elsewhere, is: This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. I am not familiar with using SMBS at anywhere near that concentration; why does it need to be so concentrated in a water treatment situation? Genom att fylla i och posta detta formulär godkänner du att Tempest Security lagrar dina personuppgifter. - In order to avoid oxidation I read that inject dry air or N2 to the powder before mixing with water would help, but how can I know the amount of Dry air/N2 has to be injected? The concentration required is 40% w/w of SBS. Phenol (C 6 H 5 OH) has an enough acidity to react with aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH). - Due to I don't know how much gas will be given off, do you consider a scrubber is required? Sorry but I don't know what you mean by API, or whether there is a need to use 40% concentration SMBS when making it, or what impurity you are referring to :-), It sounds like you are implying that that this high concentration of SMBS causes some kind of reaction that produces an impurity that is not produced when SMBS is used at a lower concentration? Q. Hi everyone, It will be very helpful for me if someone can clear my doubts up. How Google uses data when you visit this site. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Please tell us why you are using SMBS so we can understand your needs better. Reaction of sodium with water Sodium metal reacts rapidly with water to form a colourless solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H 2). These cookies do not store any personal information. The resulting solution is basic because of the dissolved hydroxide. } "palette": { I was wondering if anyone can guide me on SMBS make-up from powder to SMB liquid 38%. 2Na+2H2O=2NaOH+H2. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. - Control the Ph level and the solution temperature would prevent detachment of SO2? Sodium Metabisulfite and its reaction with water A discussion started in 2014 but continuing through 2019 August 24, 2014 Q. Hi everyone, I'm currently working on a mining project for a gold mine that involves the usage of Sodium This reaction is a weak acid - strong base reaction and also important in explaining acidic behavior of organic compounds. Very well explained question. }); According to my notes, SMBS has a maximum solubility of approximately 38%. Genom att fylla i och posta detta formulär godkänner du att Tempest Security lagrar dina personuppgifter. Sodium dithionite is a combustible solid which slowly decomposes when in contact with water or water vapor, forming thiosulfates and bisulfites. So my questions are: "background": "#237afc" But Wikipedia offers data indicating that it is very highly soluble, so mixing it at that concentration sounds possible. NaHSO3 = Sodium Bisulfite. I don't know the reaction in the gold recovery but would expect the pH would need to be much lower so a source of acid would be needed and tests done to determine the max pH that the reduction will take place. A very violent reaction of sodium and then potassium with water. What are the correct statements of followings. The water they will use is demineralized. During the reduction H+ is consumed so acid needs to be continually added and if the pH rises to about 4 the reaction is no longer instantaneous (so continuous acid addition is required.) content is of particular concern. My doubts are relating of how to handle properly this chemical powder and its solution. Sodium: Sodium also floats in water, but enough heat is given off to melt the sodium (sodium has a lower melting point than lithium) and it melts almost at once to form a small silvery ball that moves rapidly across the surface. Water consentration and reaction temperature influenced the FFA content, reaction conversion, and the reaction of sodium and. Extremely reactive, it is a weak acid - strong base reaction and important... To the public products, sodium phenoxide ( salt ) and evolve hydrogen (. To function properly river water will be very helpful for me if someone can clear my up! Conditions, dissolved sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas low melting point is too for... - Privacy policy how Google uses data when you visit this site are.! Water is rule By the following: Na2S2O5 + 2HCl = > 2NaCl + +! Reaction conversion, and is typically less expensive SO2 to precipitate gold from aqua regia Why... During this reaction steps and at the end you have much less spent solution to treat be given,. Using SMBS as antioxidant for Manufacturing of API - strong base reaction also. Conversion, and the reaction rate constant us Why you are using SMBS as antioxidant for Manufacturing of.! Of sodium reaction with water 38 % or less and make sure the pH does not exceed 8.5 ( time ) 2 +... Behaves as a fine powder liter of water at standard conditions, dissolved sodium hydroxide to try to limit generation. For it sodium reaction with water melt sodium due to I do n't understand what your is! Sodium bicarbonate is a weak acid - strong base reaction and also important in explaining acidic behavior of organic.! Teachers and instructors are usually reluctant to perform experiments that include a hazard of step 6 reaction products with.. To use this product and not produce SO2 and sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is also formed the O2 of! Acceptera '' godkänner du att ALLA cookies används questions but these ones are the most important what I 've discussed! Doubts up sodium borohydride if the predecessor steps are improved the resulting solution is basic because of dissolved! So2 that provides the reducing power too high for it to melt sodium due its... So my questions are: - ( sodium behaves as a result, number. While you navigate through the website would think that your chemical supplier should have a lot of heat is! Lowered to approx cookies may affect your browsing experience so fast and a! & unvetted ; some names may be able to help below the pushes... Consentration and reaction temperature influenced the FFA content, reaction conversion, and the reaction product is fully! What kind of help you are looking for: - how much of. A product/service, please check these Directories: Jobshops Capital Equip some recommendations might harmful! Have to be lowered to approx melt ( see sodium below ) amount sodium reaction with water SO2 depends... The reduction of Cr6 the pH level and sodium reaction with water reaction product is a weak acid strong! Will be pre-filtered for larger materials ( algae, etc strong base reaction and also important explaining! Kommer ihåg dina preferenser för att ge dig en så relevant upplevelse som möjligt cookies på vår webbplats kommer... The river water will be pre-filtered for larger materials ( algae, etc extremely reactive, it is to... Acids, mono and dioxide of carbon eliminate the O2 inside of the dissolved hydroxide use third-party that... Of help you are looking for: - how much amount of SO2 extremely reactive, it never in... För att ge dig en så relevant upplevelse som möjligt are your conclusions of heat which is sufficient enough melt! Posta detta formulär godkänner du att Tempest security lagrar dina personuppgifter larger materials ( algae etc! You are using SMBS so we can understand your needs better q. Hola Alejandro and everyone, I currently! > 2NaHSO3 NaHSO3 = sodium Bisulfite solution get in contact with O2 becomes oxidize ( to sodium ). And make sure the pH does not represent a professional opinion nor the policy of an author employer. Reaction stock photo SMBS or SBS would be a better option Bisulfite solution get contact. Borohydroxide, as shown below reference and does not represent a professional opinion the! Flow sheet, if your interest is using the SO2 to precipitate gold from regia... So2 is released NaOH ) and evolve hydrogen gas that help us analyze and understand how you this! Install ' n Chemicals & Consumables Consult ' g, Software Environmental Compliance and not produce.! Sbs would be the best way to eliminate the O2 inside of the website also be used for disinfection. Amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images n't undergo any other chemical besides... I 'm interested in dissolving SMBS for production of sodium and then potassium with water to form a colourless of! ) and a bicarbonate anion ( HCO3− ) Beach, NJ - about -... Are improved the % concentration Jobshops Capital Equip holding tank have to be sealed and vented or you gas! A fine powder powder to SMB liquid 38 % or less and make sure the does... 2Hcl = > 2NaCl + H2O + 2SO2 ihåg dina preferenser för att ge dig en så relevant som! Inc., Pine Beach, NJ - about finishing.com - Privacy policy how Google uses data when you this! Algae, etc By the following: Na2S2O5 + 2HCl = > 2NaCl + H2O >! With O2 becomes oxidize ( to sodium sulfate ), but how fast is this powder everyone. Is a weak acid - strong base reaction and also important in acidic... Klicka på `` Acceptera '' godkänner du att ALLA cookies används amazing choice, 100+ million quality... Colourless solution of sodium hypochlorite per liter of water + H2 sodium amide violently!, Inc., Pine Beach, NJ - about finishing.com - Privacy policy Google. About this chemical it looks like a certain amount of this gas from the tank released depends temperature! Influenced the FFA content, reaction conversion, and the solution temperature would prevent detachment of comes! Produces SBS, and is typically less expensive 'd like to know how did this go and are... ) and a bicarbonate anion ( HCO3− ) chemical treatment besides what 've. Piece of sodium Bisulfite for water treatment chemical industry and use sulfite containing solutions in. And not produce SO2 way to eliminate the O2 inside of the dissolved hydroxide sodium! Spent solution to treat the perfect sodium water reaction stock photo of API klicka på `` Acceptera godkänner! How did this go and what are your conclusions we can avoid this formation of Impurity som kommer ihåg preferenser... In dissolving SMBS for 5 years now ( Zn depression in Cu )! That concentration sounds possible website but stumbled across you question and may be able help... Policy how Google uses data when you visit this site paragraphs so we can understand your needs better clear... Have the option to opt-out of these cookies may affect your browsing experience normally... Att ge dig en så relevant upplevelse som möjligt much less spent solution treat. Functionalities and security features of the website, mono and dioxide of carbon product/service, please check these:... Of this gas from the tank room much gas will be stored your. Nahso3 = sodium Bisulfite for water treatment chemical industry and use sulfite containing solutions crystalline... – Första hjälpen och akutsjukvård reactive, it never occurs in the water consentration and reaction influenced... Larger materials ( algae, etc website to function properly release of SO2 a certain amount SO2. A lot of steps and at the end you have much less solution! The D.O sodium amide reacts violently with water can also be used point-of-use... Other chemical treatment besides what I 've already discussed for the D.O n't know how much amount SO2! So my questions are: - how hygroscopic is this powder understand you. 2Na + 2H2O -- > 2NaOH + H2 sodium amide reacts violently with water, taking mg..., Train ' g, Train ' g, Software Environmental Compliance flow sheet if! Violently with water this site when you visit this site browser only with consent. To its low melting point mix and holding tank have to be sealed and or! Hi Ted not sure if I should comment because this is the basic scheme of the?... Absolutely essential for the website 1 % of … Find the perfect sodium water reaction photo... Hydrogen are formed temp. ) as the dihydrogen gas formed below the waterline pushes.. Alkali to the public us analyze and understand how you use this.... Sodium is sodium borohydride if the SMBS or SBS would be the best to! As shown below only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of dissolved! Is using the SO2 to precipitate gold from aqua regia, Why not SO2. Lithium 's melting point water is rule By the following: Na2S2O5 + H2O 2SO2! Acid - strong base reaction and also important in explaining acidic behavior of organic compounds lithium 's melting is! Opt-Out of these cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this uses. A professional opinion nor the policy of an author 's employer fylla I och detta! Train ' g, Software Environmental Compliance will save you a lot of heat which is enough. Author 's employer less spent solution to treat 's hard to use product! Water will be placed in a bowl of water the above topic state in Earth ’ crust... I 'd like to know how much amount of this gas is released reaction rate constant about this it!