In addition, see Charles Sterling Popple, Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) in World War II (1952) on the Rumanian oil industry, which did not fall to the Germans until the spring of 1940. He was what one might call the"dean of the pipeliners" in the U. S. Under his direction the Big Inch was completed in record time. Ickes, soon after his appointment, selected 72 leaders of America's oil industry for the Petroleum Industry Council for National Defense, which later became known as the Petroleum Industry War Council (PIWC). Without it World War Two could never have been won. Four out of five Soviet aircraft, tanks and trucks used in World War II ran on fuel produced in Baku refineries from oil extracted in the Baku oil fields. It must be emphasized, that so effective were the efforts of American oil companies at manufacturing synthetic rubber, at no time did Allied campaigns suffer from a shortage of rubber. Due to heavy bombing most of the capacity was destroyed until March 1945. The Big Inch and Little Big Inch pipelines, it should be stressed, aided almost beyond estimation the winning of World War Two by the Allies. Does a Javelin of Lightning allow a cleric to use Thunderous Strike? The importance of oil had become apparent during the First World War. However, the main source of oil was the Leuna-Werke (about 15 miles south of Halle). But their invention was used by the Nazis to fuel the Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe. Why didn't Germany attack Turkey during WW2? It only takes a minute to sign up. Oil was in desperately short supply for the Axis powers in WW2. During the war, they had access to the oilfields around Ploesti, Romania and in the area around Lake Balaton in Hungary. Germany - Germany - World War II: World War II is appropriately called “Hitler’s war.” Germany was so extraordinarily successful in the first two years that Hitler came close to realizing his aim of establishing hegemony in Europe. At the beginning of the war 7 refineries were active (the biggest in Leuna), 3 more were nearly finished. On June 11, 1940, six days after the British evacuation at Dunkirk, France, Italy declared war on Britain and France. The Germans got little from Maikop, and none from Grozny. Generally, natural or crude oil and petroleum are extremely crucial to the existence of the Third Reich during the World War II (1939–1945). Then, toward the end of August 1944, Russia captured the Rumanian oil fields, which meant the Germans could no longer get even what little remaining oil production there was still coming from that country (see Popple p. 160). At the start of Barbarossa, what was the state of Germany's oil supply? In its scale of destruction, the war on the Eastern Front was unique; from … Active 5 years, 3 months ago. So, while I accept the importance of oil supplies elsewhere in the world, that does not change the following fact--without U. S. oil (above all other sources) and the extraordinary cooperation between the U. S. governmemt and American oil companies, World War Two could never have been won by the Allied armies. A larger number of pipelines delivered fuel from Antwerp to Brussels, between two tank farms. The Allies needed oil for airplanes, ships, tanks, and to run factories, and the Germans hoped to cut off the supply. For years toluene had come as by-product of coke-oven operations, but in 1933 the Standard Oil Development Company announced a laboratory method for producing it from oil. Standard Oil of New Jersey sent a young lawyer from their legal department to Venezuela, full of petroleum. Before WW2, how did Japan pay for imported US oil? All oil had to be purchased from foreign nations; most of it from the USA, which was at the time providing close to … The Wikipedia article contains a table with production numbers. Can vice president/security advisor or secretary of state be chosen from the opposite party? Much of the rest came from the efforts of Shell Oil. even so, with the title, which was used instead, I think Mr. Neumann is missing a major point--in my essay I state that 6 billion of the 7 billion barrels of oil used by the Allies in fighting and winning World War Two came from American oil fields. Yes, it's been the turning point in strategic initiative. As suggested above, that production by American oil companies exceeded even U. S. government expectations. When War finally came with the NAZI invasion of Poland. The Allies repeatedly tried to bomb these refineries during the war, believing that they could shut off Germany's oil supplies, but failed to do pretty much anything to stop the supply of oil. During the WWII it was the oil of the Middle East and Caucasus that played the real strategic role. The WWII Axis governments had no direct territorial access to oil. On 28 May 1941, even then before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established by a letter what became known officially as the Petroleum Administration for War (PAW), on 2 December 1942. Having said as much, I still appreciate Mr. Neumann's commemts and will take them in stride. The leaders of every nation involved in World War II were aware of how crucial oil supplies were to their war plans. Interestingly enough, the PIWC held its first meeting,"'one of the great coincidences of history,'" (as Ickes referred to the matter in his fine book Fightin' Oil), the day after Pearl Harbor. Convinced that oil was essential to fuel his ambitions, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler moved to promote the development of a synthetic fuel industry in Germany shortly after taking power in 1933. The main combatants were the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China). Japan had a small domestic oil production, a few million barrels, but not nearly enough to meet their peacetime needs let alone war.What they did have is enough oil refineries with a capacity of almost a year's peacetime consumption. It caused that there were waged the most important battles of the WWII: Caucasus and Stalingrad, North Africa and Alamein. To provide all the oil, or at least most of it, for the Allied war effort, the United States enlisted the aid of American oil companies, all of which responded without hesitation to the challenge. To conclude--this essay began with a anecdote about George S. Patton, American general and tank commander. N ormandy Invasion and Fuel . Besides, without the outstanding cooperation of the Petroleum Administration for War with the numerous oil companies of America, World War Two very likely would never have been won by the Allies either. And, that is not to mention the need for oil as a lubricant for guns and machinery. This question is off-topic. The Battle of Stalingrad was Hitler's desperate attempt to get to the oil-rich Baku. By late 1942, the war had. Now, it must be added, in spite of Mr. Neumann's contention (or at least his assumption), oil of the Middle East played a very limited role in Allied victory. Seems like a legit question to me. Oil tankers were their favorite targets. WW2 Axis powers had enough successes early in the war to make dramatic gains in the European and Pacific theaters of war, but enough failures to doom themselves to ultimate defeat.. Britain’s policy of appeasement had failed to stop Hitler. In truth, Standard Oil threatened Roosevelt with cutting off oil supplies if his administration continued exposing their corporate officers' cooperation with Fascist/NAZI elements for decades prior to the war. The former carried oil, as yet unrefined, and the latter petroleum products. The article is very interesting, but it is focused on American issues, and on technicalities. For example, in 1942 Germany consumed 9,500,000 t (estimated), and produced 4,920,000 t from coal. Along with the marvelous achievements of American oil companies at producing toluene and synthetic rubber, one must add the prodigious yields of gasoline, including 100-octane grade. Rush Limbaugh and the Nineties Roots of “Cancel Culture”, Forgotten Camps, Living History: Japanese Internment in the South, The 150-Year-Old Ku Klux Klan Act Being Used Against Trump In Capitol Attack, The Food that Built America: The Kings of Burgers, A Look Inside the Green Book, Which Guided Black Travelers Through a Segregated and Hostile America, Behind The Former Slave Narratives Captured By A New Deal Program, Henry Louis Gates Jr. on African-American Religion, Jewish Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges, The January 6th Assault on Congress and the Fate of the GOP’s Faustian Bargain with Trump: Notes from German History, History, Evidence and the Ethics of Belief. And the Persian corridor was important to getting British aid and American lend-lease through to the Red Army fighting at Stalingrad. As planning was underway for the WWII Allied invasion of Normandy, a means to supply fuel was addressed. and they also had plans to link up with the Persian Gulf through Persia (now Iran). Their attack on Russia stalled before they reached those oil fields. Also, by June 1944, Rumanian oil output had plummetted further to 30,000 barrels per day. The German term for this kind of refinery plant is "Hydrierwerk". English equivalent of Vietnamese "Rather kill mistakenly than to miss an enemy.". Too much writing, even in history, depends too much on generalizations, unsupported by detail. Keith Miller has been a speaker with the OAH Distinguished Lectureship Series since 1999. But, in U. S., for that year came 1.7 billion barrels. Now, it cannot be stated too forcefully, American oil, which amounted in all to 6 billion barrels, out of a total of 7 billion barrels consumed by the Allies for the period of World War Two, brought victory! Lend-Lease and Military Aid to the Allies in the Early Years of World War II. Stalin and the Allies knew that once Hitler had access to those fields, there would be no stopping him, which was why the battle turned out to be so gory. This appointment by Ickes, along with a meeting of 1,500 influential oilmen, dispelled any doubts about the willingness of Ickes (who had, before the war, made some harsh judgments regarding America's oil industry) to cooperate fully with oil industry leaders and their companies, great and small. Had Britain lost Egypt it would have been a big blow to the Allies. The production had a maximum in 1943. Hitler invaded Poland on 1st September 1939 and Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. For much of the war Germany relied on synthetic oil made from low grade coal (by hydrogenation). By the time of World War Two the process had been perfected. Other companies produced butadiene during the war, but none were more important than the two companies referred to here, which together provived 29.1 percent of the total U. S. yield of butadiene from 1943 through 1945. After World War II, the vast oil fields of Arabia made it uneconomic for most free nations to pursue the technology. Unfortunately the Far East was neglected and all hell let loose in Dec 41. Then the Germans invaded the the Low Countries a… In fact, Ickes and Davies, along with the whole of the American oil business, forged an amicable working relationship that endured throughout World War Two. “The late 1930s was a time of increasing tensions between Mexico and the United States on the diplomatic front, largely tied to the … Closed. It was already the object of political issues before the outbreak of the war. This demonstrates how the Swiss were keen to stay on good terms with Germany to continue their vital trade. Wallace E. Pratt and Dorothy Good (1950), pp. Where did Japan get their oil during WWII? What factors discouraged the Nazis from focusing all their forces on the Caucasus region during Operation Barbarossa? The largest supplier of oil for Germany was the Ploiești oil refineries in Romania. When interviewed by newspapermen, he readily admitted how important oil had been in World War two. I haven't spoken with my advisor in months because of a personal breakdown. It was also essential as Archangel was closed by ice for part of the year. I always run into this -- Stalingrad. Also, of vital importance to the Allied prosecution of World War Two was the making of synthetic rubber. To produce synthetic rubber required the making of butadiene, its basic raw material. But by that time, Germany's best chances to come out on top had long since been blown. And in 1940, Socony-Vacuum sent William Mosetti to Argentina. [closed], Opt-in alpha test for a new Stacks editor, Visual design changes to the review queues. When it is realized to what extent World War Two was motorized in nature, not to mention the primacy of air power, one can hardly exaggerate the importance of such fuel output. There were three six inch pipelines (two mogas and one avgas) from Cherbourg to Mainz (paralleling the 'Red Ball' Highway. Both lines originated in Texas and extended to the East Coast. Let me close with a refernce to a superior officer on the other side, Field-Marshall Karl Gerd Von Rundstedt of Germany. As the first rumblings of another great war stirred in Europe in the 1930s, Mexico and the United States seemed like unlikely allies. In order to become less dependent on outside sources, the Germans undertook a sizable expansion program of their own meager domestic oil pumping. By the way, if any reader of this would like to know more about Wallace E. Pratt, one of the greatest petroleum geologists ever and an ardent conservationist, see my sketch of his life on American National Biography at www.anb.org (2001). After the failure at Stalingrad, it was all downhill for him. The Smith Portable pipelines were critical to the delivery of gasoline to the fronts and airfields in France. How do I reestablish contact? The Germans also attempted to take the Suez Canal and open up access to the Middle East, but they got turned round at a little place called. But, that source of oil for Germany was soon curtailed severely. 'History' indeed! During WW2, did the USSR re-gauge railways in conquered areas? Where did Germany get their oil during WW2? MAZI dipllomats worked to develop trade relations with the Balkan countries and to bring the countries in the rgion into the Axis. I understand some came from Romania, but that could have provided only a small portion of the oil needed. 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