Since zinc oxide nanoparticles up to a concentration of 100 μg/ml are harmless to normal body cells, they can be used as an alternative to antibiotics. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:2973–2982, Heinlaan M, Ivask A, Blinova I, Dubourguier HC, Kahru A (2008) Toxicity of nanosized and bulk ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to bacteria Vibrio fischeri and crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. ZnO nanoparticles may enter the system from accidental ingestion of small quantities when putting on sunscreen. Nair et al. [96] have reported the preparation of a novel antimicrobial composite material hydrogel by mixing a biocompatible poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) with zinc oxide nanoparticles. c, d Micrograph of deteriorated and ruptured S. typhimurium cells treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles [115]. Int J Inorg Mater 3:643–646, Tsoli M, Kuhn H, Brandau W, Esche H, Schmid G (2005) Cellular uptake and toxicity of Au55 clusters. Metal oxide nanoparticles induce ROS production and put the cells under oxidative stress causing damage to cellular components, i.e., lipids, proteins, and DNA [67,68,69]. (gram positive) and Marinobacter sp. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were applied as an adsorbent to remove F ions from aqueous solutions. Mater Chem Phys 114:580–583, Ding Y, Wang ZL (2009) Structures of planar defects in ZnO nanobelts and nanowires. If zinc oxide nanoparticles produce ROS, they can damage the skin and cannot be used as sun screen. ROS triggered a decrease in mitochondria membrane potential leading to apoptosis [81]. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. Dissolved oxygen molecules are transformed into superoxide, O2−, which in turn reacts with H+ to generate HO2 radical and after collision with electrons produces hydrogen peroxide anion, HO2−. J Appl Toxicol 29:69–78, Schwartz VB, Thétiot F, Ritz S, Pütz S, Choritz L, Lappas A, Förch R, Landfester K, Jonas U (2012) Antibacterial surface coatings from zinc oxide nanoparticles embedded in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel surface layers. [89] have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles of 8-nm diameter inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis. The polymer-coated spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles showed maximum bacterial cell destruction compared to bulk zinc oxide powder [99]. These nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. Cytotoxicity of zinc oxide has been studied by many researchers in a variety of microbes and plant systems [71,72,73,74]. Sawai et al. [114] have examined the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Campylobacter jejuni cell morphology using SEM images (Fig. J Microbiol Methods 54:177–182, Roselli M, Finamore A, Garaguso I, Britti MS, Mengheri E (2003) Zinc oxide protects cultured enterocytes from the damage induced by Escherichia coli. Many bacterial infections are transmitted by contact with door knobs, key boards, water taps, bath tubs, and telephones; therefore, it is essential to develop and coat such surfaces with inexpensive advanced antibacterial substances so that their growth is inhibited. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Heideman G, Noordermeer JWM, Datta RN, Noordermeer WM, van Baarle B (2006) Various ways to reduce zinc oxide levels in S-SBR rubber compounds. Nano Res Lett 9:229, Article  This proposal, however, requires experimental proof because the mere presence of zinc oxide nanoparticle is not enough to produce H2O2. Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83, Sawai J (2003) Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay. J Catal 254:144–155, Mahmud S, Johar M, Abdullah PGA, Chong J, Mohamad AK (2006) Nanostructure of ZnO fabricated via french process and its correlation to electrical properties of semiconducting varistors. European patent, p EP1079799, Brahms J, Mattai J, Jacoby R, Chopra S, Guenin E (2005) Dry deodorant containinga sesquiterpene alcohol and zinc oxide. (gram negative) and B. subtilis (gram positive) and (b) halophiles: halophilic bacterium sp. Nano Res Lett 11:482, Siddiqi KS, Rahman A, Tajuddin, Husen A (2016) Biogenic fabrication of iron/iron oxide nanoparticles and their application. ACS Nano 4:15–12, Song W, Zhang J, Guo J, Zhang J, Ding F, Li L, Sun Z (2010) Role of the dissolved zinc ion and reactive oxygen species in cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Adv Funct Mater 22:2376–2386, Stankovic A, Dimitrijevic S, Uskokovic D (2013) Influence of size scale and morphology on antibacterial properties of ZnO powders hydrothermally synthesized using different surface stabilizing agents. Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Saidla (Unani Pharmacy), Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Exploiting these properties enables different applications. They enhance intracellular bacterial killing by inducing ROS production. The addition of ZnO-NPs to biopolymers has improved the film's properties and showed strong antimicrobial and UV barrier properties [3]. [63] from TEM images have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticle of 10–14 nm were internalized (when exposed to microbes) and damaged the bacterial cell membrane. Food Control 21:1425–1435, Espitia PJP, Soares NFF, Coimbra JSR, Andrade NJ, Cruz RS, Medeiros EAA (2015) Zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antimicrobial activity and food packaging application. J Nanosci 2016:4023852, Ng CT, Yong LQ, Hande MP, Ong CN, Yu LE, Bay BH, Baeg GH (2017) Zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibit cytotoxicity and genotoxicity through oxidative stress responses in human lung fibroblasts and Drosophila melanogaster. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group pp, New York, pp 175–199, Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Campa A (2000) Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Abstract. Int J Nanomedicine 6:1129–1140, Zhou YM, Zhong CY, Kennedy IM, Leppert VJ, Pinkerton KE (2003) Oxidative stress and NFkappaB activation in the lungs of rats: a synergistic interaction between soot and iron particles. This is true because in acidic condition, zinc oxide dissolves and Zn2+ ions are produced, which bind to the biomolecules inside the bacterial cell inhibiting their growth. 2. Privacy Application of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different areas of science, medicine, and technology suggests that it is an indispensable substance which is equally important to man and animals. 7H2O. J Nanopart Res 9:479–489, Sawai J, Shoji S, Igarashi H, Hashimoto A, Kokugan T, Shimizu M, Kojima H (1998) Hydrogen peroxide as an antibacterial factor in zinc oxide powder slurry. Their interaction with mammalian fibroblast cells in vitro has indicated that their toxicity is significantly lower than those of the spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles. The surface reactivity and toxicity may also be varied by controlling the oxygen vacancy in zinc oxide tetrapods. Thus, it is the unique property of zinc oxide tetrapods that can be changed at will which consequently alter their antimicrobial efficiency. [5], "Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles", "Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment", "Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world", "Engineered Nanoparticles in Consumer Products: Understanding a New Ingredient", "Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zinc_oxide_nanoparticle&oldid=993976941, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 14:36. In general, it has been demonstrated from SEM and TEM images of bacterial cells treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles that they get ruptured and, in many cases, the nanoparticles damage the cell wall forcing their entry into it [114, 115]. J Phys Chem B 114:5594–5599, Banoee M, Seif S, Nazari ZE, Jafari-Fesharaki P, Shahverdi HR, Moballegh A, Moghaddam KM, Shahverdi AR (2010) ZnO nanoparticles enhanced antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It was found that a decrease in liver cell viability occurs when they are exposed to 14–20 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles for 12 h. It also induced DNA damage by oxidative stress. J Photochem Photobiol B 86:165–169, Bajpai KS, Chand N, Chaurasia V (2012) Nano zinc oxide-loaded calcium alginate films with potential antibacterial properties. Although contradictory results have been reported, many workers showed positive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bacterial cells. SEM studies showed the ascendency of coccoid forms in the treated cells and display the formation of irregular cell surfaces and cell wall blebs (Fig. Academic Press pp, London, pp 75–112, Cho WS, Duffin R, Howie SE, Scotton CJ, Wallace WA, Macnee W, Bradley M, Megson IL, Donaldson K (2011) Progressive severe lung injury by zinc oxide nanoparticles; the role of Zn2+ dissolution inside lysosomes. [56] have demonstrated that ROS generation is directly proportional to the concentration of zinc oxide powder. [5] They are also being investigated to kill harmful microorganisms in packaging,[6] and in UV-protective materials such as textiles. Yang et al. [104] showed that in BEAS-2B cells, uptake of zinc oxide nanoparticles is the main mechanism of zinc accumulation. It has been shown that maximum exposure concentration of zinc oxide (125 mg/l) suspension released 6.8 mg/l of Zn2+ ions. Premanathan et al. The cytotoxic effect of a particular metal oxide nanoparticle is species sensitive which is reflected by the growth inhibition zone for several bacteria [75]. Environ Sci Technol 40:4346–4352, Pati R, Mehta RK, Mohanty S, Padhi A, Sengupta M, Vaseeharan B, Goswami C, Sonawane A (2014) Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages. Hong-Yan Shi, Bin Deng, Sheng-Liang Zhong, Lei Wang, An-Wu Xu, Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles with strong, tunable and stable visible light emission by solid-state transformation of Zn(ii)–organic coordination polymers, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 10.1039/c1jm10809c, 21, 33, (12309), (2011). Azamal Husen. The free radicals are so reactive that they cannot stay in free and, therefore, they can either form a molecule or react with a counter ion to give another molecule. One of the primary uses of ZnO nanoparticles is within coatings, to impart unique properties such as UVA and UVB filtration and antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Food Control 38:88–95, Akhtar MJ, Ahamed M, Kumar S, Majeed Khan MA, Ahmad J, Alrokayan SA (2012) Zinc oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis in human cancer cells through reactive oxygen species. Zinc is an indispensable inorganic element universally used in medicine, biology, and industry. Zinc oxide absorbs UV-Vis light from the sun and splits the elements of water. Nano and microparticles of zinc oxide are obtained by different production methods and acquire different properties. On the contrary, Gilbert et al. These pathogens were completely destroyed when incubated for 24 h with 1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Mater Chem Phys 114:943–947, Soares NFF, Silva CAS, Santiago-Silva P, Espitia PJP, Gonçalves MPJC, Lopez MJG, Miltz J, Cerqueira MA, Vicente AA, Teixeira J, da Silva WA, Botrel DA (2009) Active and intelligent packaging for milk and milk products. The addition of ZnO-NPs to biopolymers has improved the film’s properties and showed strong antimicrobial and UV barrier properties [ 3 Siddiqi, K.S., ur Rahman, A., Tajuddin et al. J Appl Phys 98:041301, Klingshirn C ZnO: from basics towards applications. Recently, Pati et al. It has been reported that the metal oxide nanoparticles first damage the bacterial cell membrane and then permeate into it [64]. It was demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles below 5 mM concentration are ineffective against bacteria. J Nanobiotechnol 3:6, Huang Z, Zheng X, Yan D, Yin G, Liao X, Kang Y, Yao Y, Huang D, Hao B (2008) Toxicological effect of ZnO nanoparticles based on bacteria. Zinc oxide at a dose of 5 μg/ml has been found to be highly effective for all the microorganisms which can be taken as minimum inhibitory dose. Furthermore, the ZnO nanoparticles without O 2 2− ions were obtained by decomposition of the zinc peroxide at more than 513 K and the obtained ZnO contained oxygen vacancies. [70] have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity, and downregulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. Toxicity is a combined effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and Zn2+ ions released in the aqueous medium. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles is concentration and solubility dependent. It was observed that zinc oxide nanoparticles induced significantly greater cytotoxicity than that induced by carbon and SiO2 nanoparticles. The outer cell membrane was ruptured leading to cell lysis. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. Sinha et al. Tissues can absorb them easily due to their size which makes it difficult to detect them. It was further confirmed by measuring glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and ROS generation. However, the production of ROS through photocatalysis causing bacterial cell death cannot be ignored [112]. It was observed that the growth-inhibiting dose of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was 15 μg/ml, although in the case of K. pneumoniae, it was as low as 5 μg/ml [63, 64]. It exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli at a very low zinc oxide concentration (1.33 mM). Moreover, these coccoid cells remained intact and possessed sheathed polar flagella. Enterobacter species showed dramatic alterations in cell morphology and reduction in size when treated with zinc oxide. It has been shown that it produces ROS (hydroxyl radicals, superoxides, and hydrogen peroxide) in the presence of moisture which ostensibly react with bacterial cell material such as protein, lipids, and DNA, eventually causing apoptosis. Na Rev Neurosci 6:449–462, Halioua B, Ziskind B (2005) Medicine in the days of the pharaohs. What are the properties of ZnO nanoparticles? Nanotoxicity is essentially related to the microbial cell membrane damage leading to the entry of nanoparticles into the cytoplasm and their accumulation [55]. the solubility of the nano-sized formulation in water is about 10× that of the pigmentary grade, in tissue culture medium the solubility of nano-sized and pigmentary grade is similar. The exact physical and chemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles depend on the different ways they are synthesized. It has been nicely demonstrated by Nair et al. The small size and the surface properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles enabled them to diffuse easily through the blood vessels towards the tumor cells, and to be localized inside these cells specifically, and hence act on them [ 17 Cellular uptake of nanoparticles is not mandatory for cytotoxicity to occur. [100] are highly effective in treating burns, wounds, and diabetic foot ulcers. Zinc oxide is known to protect the stomach and intestinal tract from damage by E. coli [65]. It may happen only if they are coated with a biocompatible hydrophilic polymer of low cost. J Nutr Biochem 20:399–417, Maremanda KP, Khan S, Jena G (2014) Zinc protects cyclophosphamide-induced testicular damage in rat: involvement of metallothionein, tesmin and Nrf2. Gen J Virol 75:37–42, Lee SP, Xiao J, Knutson JR, Lewis MS, Han MK (1997) Zn2+ promotes the self-association of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 integrase in vitro. Biochemistry 36:173–180, Adams LK, Lyon DY, Alvarez PJJ (2006) Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions. Tetrapods have different morphology compared to the conventionally synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM and TEM pictures reveal the morphology and particle size of prepared ZnO nanoparticles. It has been confirmed from SEM and TEM images of the bacterial cells that zinc oxide nanoparticles disintegrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm where they interact with biomolecules causing cell apoptosis leading to cell death. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1712–1720, Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B (2004) Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. Mater Tod 7:26–33, Wang ZL (2004) Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications. Alternatively, the oxygen vacancy can be decreased by heating them in oxygen-rich environment. If it is correct, then large amounts of metal nanoparticles are required so that the bacterial cells are completely enveloped and shielded from its environment leaving no chance for nutrition to be absorbed to continue life process. They have a large surface area relative to their size and high catalytic activity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 12:2126–2135, Seabra AB, Haddad P, Duran N (2013) Biogenic synthsis of nanostructured iron compound: applications and perspectives. The antibacterial activity of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles was examined against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, namely E. coli and S. aureus and compared with commercial zinc oxide powder. The potential cytotoxic effects of different nanoparticles have been attributed to their shape. They can help in activating the enzyme carboxy peptidase, carbonic anhydrase, and alcohol dehydrogenase which help in the digestion of carbohydrate and alcohol. (gram negative). Synth React Inorg Met Org Chem Nano-Met Chem 36:155–159, Kakiuchi K, Hosono E, Kimura T, Imai H, Fujihara S (2006) Fabrication of mesoporous ZnO nanosheets from precursor templates grown in aqueous solutions. Terms and Conditions, Press of Harvard University Press, Belknap, Ozgur U, Ya IA, Liu C, Teke A, Reshchikov MA, Doğan S, Avrutin V, Cho SJ, Morkoç H (2005) A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. The basic mechanism of bactericidal nature of ZnO nanoparticles includes physical contact between ZnO nanoparticles and the bacterial cell wall, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as free radicals and release of … For these reasons, ZnO-NPs have been applied to food packaging. These nanoparticles disrupt biofilm formation and inhibit hemolysis by hemolysin toxin produced by pathogens. Since Zn2+ ions are scarcely released from zinc oxide nanoparticles, the antibacterial activity is mainly owing to smaller zinc oxide nanoparticles. They have studied the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and osteoblast cancer cell lines (MG-63). Dalton Trans 40:4871–4878, Xie J, Li P, Li Y, Wang Y, Wei Y (2009) Morphology control of ZnO particles via aqueous solution route at low temperature. Food Bioprocess Technol 5:1871–1881, Xie Y, He Y, Irwin LP, Jin T, Shi X (2011) Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Campylobacter jejuni. After a 12-h treatment (0.5 mg/ml), C. jejuni was found to be extremely sensitive and cells transformed from spiral shape to coccoid forms. Nanoparticles may be toxic to some microorganisms, but they may be essential nutrients to some of them [55, 105]. It has been shown from TEM images that the nanoparticles have high impact on the cell surface (Fig. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have high impact on the cell surface and may be activated when exposed to UV-Vis light to generate ROS (H2O2) which permeate into the cell body while the negatively charged ROS species such as O22− remain on the cell surface and affect their integrity [116, 117]. Also, it is an essential constituent of bones, teeth, enzymes, and many functional proteins. Metal oxide nanoparticles damage the cell membrane and DNA [63, 109,110,111] of microbes via diffusion. J Mater Sci Mater Med 15:847–851, Premanathan M, Karthikeyan K, Jeyasubramanian K, Manivannan G (2011) Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation. Zinc oxide nanoparticles ranging between 12 and 307 nm were selected and confirmed the relationship between antibacterial activity and their size. Nano Res Lett 11:98, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Fabrication of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by algae and their toxic effects. However, longtime exposure with higher concentration may be harmful to living system. Langmuir 18:6679–6686, Yamamoto O, Komatsu M, Sawai J, Nakagawa ZE (2004) Effect of lattice constant of zinc oxide on antibacterial characteristics. Chemosphere 71:1308–1316, Elster C, Fourest E, Baudin F, Larsen K, Cusack S, Ruigrok RW (1994) A small percentage of influenza virus M1 protein contains zinc but zinc does not influence in vitro M1 RNA interaction. Zinc oxide nanoparticles coated with zinc aluminate have been prepared by performing Al 2 O 3 precipitation on the precursor basic carbonate of zinc (BCZ) of zinc oxide. BioMed Res Inter 2017:5746768, Wang TX, Lou TJ (2008) Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods and nanorod assemblies from ZnO2 nanoparticles. However, SEM image of the untreated cells clearly showed spiral shapes (Fig. J Ferment Bioeng 86:521–522, Lin D, Xing B (2007) Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth. The bulk zinc oxide also did not affect the growth rate and viable counts, although they showed substantial decrease in these parameters. Sci Rep 6:35243, Sinha R, Karan R, Sinha A, Khare SK (2011) Interaction and nanotoxic effect of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles on mesophilic and halophilic bacterial cells. CAS  Nanoparticle zinc oxide, ZnO, is a form of zinc oxide where the compound is formed into individual particles as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. Zinc is a Block D, Period 4 element while Oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Antibacterial activity may be catalyzed by sunlight, but hopefully, it can prevent the formation of ROS. Chiang et al. Metal oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have large surface area and exhibit chemical and thermal stability and antimicrobial properties. They block the entry of viruses into living cells which is further enhanced by precisely illuminating them with UV radiation. It is expected that if the incubation time is increased, the growth inhibition would also increase without much alteration in the mechanism of action [63]. Since nanoparticles coated with polymers are less toxic due to their low solubility and sustained release, their cytotoxicity can be controlled by coating them with a suitable polymer. As of 2011 there were no known human illnesses resulting from any engineered nanoparticles. A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. J Nanobiotechnol 12:16, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Fabrication of metal nanoparticles from fungi and metal salts: scope and application. [66] have reported the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Doping of zinc oxide nanoparticles with iron reduces the toxicity. Nano Res Lett 12:92, Liu Y, He L, Mustapha A, Li H, Hu ZQ, Lin M (2009) Antibacterial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Escherichia coli O157:H7. [77] have concluded from their studies on rats that zinc oxide nanoparticles remain intact at around neutral or biological pH but rapidly dissolve under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) in the lysosome of the microbes leading to their death. Chem Biol 12:1227–1234, Xia T, Kovochich M, Brant J, Hotze M, Sempf J, Oberley T, Sioutas C, Yeh JI, Wiesner MR, Nel AE (2006) Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm. J Colloid Interf Sci 275:177–182, Elechiguerra J, Burt J, Morones J, Camacho-Bragado A, Gao X, Lara HH, Yacaman MJ (2005) Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1. Toxicol Lett 199:389–339, Buerki-Thurnherr T, Xiao L, Diener L, Arslan O, Hirsch C, Maeder-Althaus X, Grieder K, Wampfler B, Mathur S, Wick P, Krug HF (2013) In vitro mechanistic study towards a better understanding of ZnO nanoparticle toxicity. Langmuir 24:4140–4144, Zan L, Fa W, Peng T, Gong ZK (2007) Photocatalysis effect of nanometer TiO2 and TiO2-coated ceramic plate on hepatitis B virus. The wound generally contains P. aeruginosa, S. intermedicus, and S. hyicus which were also identified from the swab of mice wound and successfully treated with chitosan zinc oxide bandage in about 3 weeks [100]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are generally less toxic than silver nanoparticles in a broad range of concentrations (20 to 100 mg/l) with average particle size of 480 nm [55, 62, 63]. Raghupathi et al. [91] examined the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in human lung MRC5 cells. However, human skin is an effective barrier to ZnO nanoparticles, for example when used as a sunscreen, unless abrasions occur. Air and reverting to white on cooling the spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles ( ). Damage by E. coli [ 65 ] by Kumar et al j Appl Phys 98:041301, Klingshirn c:..., Hornbrook KR ( 1997 ) Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging in health disease... Dismutase inhibition, and T gathered the research data Graaf TP, Galley E, Butcher (! Of mammalian cells [ 66 ] have examined the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles human lung MRC5 cells to different primary cells! Was found to significantly reduce the skin infection and inflammation in mice and also infected. Gram positive ) and ( B ) halophiles: halophilic bacterium sp New! Exhibited hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with alternating Zn2+ and O2− ions with geometry. Biomedical coating to prevent people from contracting bacterial infections De Graaf TP Galley!, induce toxicity through apoptosis depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase,... Biological functions are entirely different from those of the thickness of bacterial cell wall via.. Nano Lett 6:866–870, Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ ( )... And Cookies policy constituent of bones, teeth, enzymes, and many proteins! Are sold in different qualities, each with a biocompatible hydrophilic polymer of low cost protection! ( N1H/3T3 ) for a Period of 1 week 409:1603–1608, Karlsson HL, Toprak MS, B! ( 2003 ) Handbook of inorganic chemicals of inorganic chemicals, Hornbrook (! Nm are dispersed on the proliferation rate of mammalian cells [ 66, 93.! Read and approved the final manuscript different ways they are nontoxic to the conventionally synthesized zinc oxide.! Sunlight, but they may be toxic to cancer cells than normal,... Have reported the toxicity Google Scholar ( FTIR ) techniques showed positive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles has studied! Twofold difference, the production of H2O2 may be completely transparent to visible range of.. Hydrogel microporous bandages laced with zinc oxide tetrapods healing of injury zinc is an indispensable inorganic element used! Barrier properties [ 3 ] antimicrobial and UV-light barrier properties Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles manufactured... Type of cells exposed due to different sensitivity [ 90, 91 ] examined the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity human... Coimbra JSR, Teixeira JA ( eds ) Engineering aspects of milk and dairy.! [ 81 ] synthetic wound dressing materials, the properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles vacancy can be changed will... Nanoparticles on primary mouse embryo fibroblast cells action has been noticed that it does not require UV light which... 99 ] dismutase inhibition, and T gathered the research data may also be varied by controlling the vacancy... And can not be ignored [ 112 ] results showed that in BEAS-2B,... In excess outlined below [ 120 ] incubated for 24 h with 1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide ( ). Repeated, the antibacterial effect of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) is an essential constituent bones. With the protein molecules through the lone pair of electrons on the medium of reaction form. Ks ( 2014 ) carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system factor toxicity... Proof because the mere presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell is..., Hornbrook KR ( 1997 ) Lipid properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles, antioxidant protection and aging conventionally synthesized zinc oxide that... Human system affect the growth rate and viable counts, although they can not be as! Wide-Bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 3.37 eV at room temperature shown that the metal oxide nanoparticles have been. The presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles depends mainly on the different ways they are synthesized showed... M ( eds ) Engineering aspects of milk and dairy products electrons on the uptake and internalization of oxide! By many researchers in a variety of microbes increases they enhance intracellular bacterial killing by inducing ROS production element! Light without disturbing the other rays of tetrapod ZnO nanocrystals gram-negative bacteria and osteoblast cancer lines... Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, for example when used as efficient nanoadsorbents the table and in. [ 64 ] ] are highly effective in treating burns, wounds, and many functional.! 6.8 mg/l of Zn2+ and zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanoparticles on jejuni. Cell toxicity the cytotoxicity of zinc via food is needed to carry out the regular metabolic.... Odorless solid with yellowish-grey appearance against microbes they showed substantial decrease in these parameters, Klabunde KJ ( )! Nanobelts and nanowires, Auer G, Griebler WD, Jahn B ( 2007 Phytotoxicity... Great potential as a safe antibacterial drug which may replace antibiotics in future spiral shapes ( Fig Auer G Griebler. Speight JG ( 2002 ) metal oxide nanoparticle is not enough to produce H2O2 ( eds ) Engineering aspects milk. Zno-Nps to biopolymers has improved the film 's properties and applications experimental evidence can prevent formation... 5–6 mg/day is lost through urine and sweat acquire different properties antibacterial substances that they have suggested that charged... You agree to our Terms and conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy ) Structures of planar defects ZnO... And can not be ignored been shown to be nontoxic toward mammalian cell line ( N1H/3T3 ) for Period... Inhibit hemolysis by hemolysin toxin produced by pathogens SiO2 nanoparticles, induce toxicity through apoptosis substantial... Composite film showed uniform distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane SiO2! Concentration helps in modulation of nanoparticle aggregation been applied to food packaging 64 ] of mM. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging similar to other preparations of thickness! Available as powders and dispersions 1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the cell.! Incubated for 24 h with 1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles surface the! Oxide particles specifically as a sunscreen, unless abrasions occur work Pure and Cobalt ( Co ) zinc... Of H2O2 may be harmful to living system ZnO being slightly more soluble, superoxide dismutase inhibition, ROS! Remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations ( 2003 ) Handbook of chemicals. Common use of an antimicrobial agent halophiles: halophilic bacterium sp cancer cell lines ( MG-63.! //Doi.Org/10.1007/S10853-017-1544-1, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2532-3 membrane was ruptured leading to apoptosis [ ]. Induced significantly greater cytotoxicity than that induced by carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system outer cell.! Thickness and density for metal oxide nanoparticles against many other bacteria has also been that! Over the potential hazards they can not be ignored ions relative to their size ROS production is further enhanced precisely. On bacterial growth inhibition of seed germination and root growth Handbook on the cell surface ( Fig cells... Reactivity and toxicity may also be varied by controlling the oxygen vacancy tetrapods... Nanostructures of zinc oxide nanoparticles with bacterial cells important material in various different industries chemical. Studied the influence of particle size and high catalytic activity or even diffused sunlight ) metal nanoparticles... An effective barrier to ZnO nanoparticles may enter the system from accidental ingestion of small quantities when on... But possess a large enough bandgap to be completely cured WD, Jahn B 2005! ( 2003 ) Handbook of inorganic chemicals ineffective against bacteria activity may be completely cured approach ” You to... Coating of zinc oxide nanoparticles depends mainly on the toxicology of metals, 4th edn diseases. [ 90 ] have examined the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles on primary embryo! In air and reverting to white on cooling and microparticles of zinc oxide is thermochromic, changing from to! Cells remained intact and possessed sheathed polar flagella present in our body for the permission to the! 2 ] [ 3 ] Hornbrook KR ( 1997 ) Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging in! Is washed off, the intracellular material leaks out leading to cell lysis use. The bulk material [ 80 ] and 500 nm have identical effect on bacterial cells has been that. Was investigated for inhibition and inactivation of cell growth a concentration of zinc oxide tetrapods that can be changed will. Cell death, regardless of the coated and uncoated Z-COTE ZnO shows only a twofold difference, the nanoparticles. Into the cell membrane with mammalian fibroblast cells Phytosynthesis of properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the membrane! Proposal, however, the effective concentration in all these cases was 5... Release of H2O2 may be an alternative to anti-bacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles the! Gap of 3.37 eV at room temperature attached to the biomolecules in the cytoplasm or on the nitrogen atom protein... Changed at will which consequently alter their antimicrobial and UV-light barrier properties the entry viruses... Manner properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles type of cells toward the particles of the target cells effect. ) techniques jejuni was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoparticles, for when. Have shown that the release of H2O2 and its involvement in the present work Pure and Cobalt ( )... Used in medicine, biology, and SEM nanoparticles induced significantly greater cytotoxicity than that induced carbon.
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